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babylonian method

Bachet ConjectureA method to find square roots using dividing and averaging

bakshali methodAlso known as Lagrange's four square theorem - every natural number can be stated as the sum of four integer squares

balanceA square root method using perfect squares

balance equationsthe difference between the sum of debit entries and the sum of credit entries entered into an account during a financial period

balance sheetA method of shuffling numbers and signs to get two sides of an equation to equal each other

balance with interestfinancial statement summarizing a company's assets, liabilities and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time

basal metabolic rateThe value of a fund when a balance is credited with interest for a specific period of time at a certain interest rate

base conversionA measure of energy expenditure while at rest

baseballConverting a number in one base to another base

basic mathgame played between two teams of nine players each who take turns batting and fielding

bayes ruleElementary math subject to help students understand fundamentals, before moving on to more difficult subjects

bearingProbability of an event, based on existing preconditions of other events

benchmark fractionsAngle measurement of a direction

bending beams displacementcommon fraction that gives you a reference to measure other fractionswith

benfords lawhe behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.

bernoulli distributionthe principle that in any large, randomly produced set of natural numbers, such as tables of logarithms or corporate sales statistics

30.1% will begin with the digit 1

17.6% will begin with the digit 2

12.5% will begin with the digit 3

9.7% will begin with the digit 4

7.9% will begin with the digit 5

6.7% will begin with the digit 6

5.8% will begin with the digit 7

5.1% will begin with the digit 8

4.6% will begin with the digit 9

Log_{10}(1 + 1/d)

bernoulli trialsA discrete distribution with two possible outcomes, n = 0, and n = 1

betaRepeating an experiment using a bernoulli distribution

better buyA letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.

Β β

bigramComparing two price and quantity measurements to see which offer is better

billTwo adjacent elements of letters, symbols, or words

binarythe amount due for products or services rendered including current charges and previous unpaid balance, plus or minus any adjustments.

bingoBase 2 for numbers

binomialgame of chance in which each player matches numbers pre-printed in different arrangements on 5×5 cards

binomial distributionPolynomial which is the sum of two monomials

binomial multiplicationdiscrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent experiments, with a success or failure outcome

binomial option pricing modelMultiplying two binomials using the FOIL method

binomial theoremiterative number tree for pricing options

binomialsalgebraic expansion of powers of a binomial

biologyPolynomial which is the sum of two monomials

bisectstudy of life and living organisms, including their physical and chemical structure, function, development and evolution

bit shiftingCut an angle into 2 equal parts.

bitwiseoperation performed on the bits of a value, moving them either left or right

bitwise ANDoperates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the individual bit level

bitwise NOTeturns a 1 in each bit position for which the corresponding bits of both operands are 1s.

bitwise ORflips the set of bits you give it, changing all the 1s to 0s and all the 0s to 1s.

~

bitwise XOR

black-scholesa binary operation that takes two bit patterns of equal length and performs the logical exclusive OR operation on each pair of corresponding bits. The result in each position is 1 if only one of the bits is 1, but will be 0 if both are 0 or both are 1.

blackjackpricing model used to determine the fair price or theoretical value for a call or a put option

BMIA game of chance played with cards

BMRBody mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight

body mass indexBasal Metabolic Rate - How many calories you would burn at rest for 24 hours.

bondBody mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight

bond pricea type of security under which the issuer owes the holder a debt, and is obliged – depending on the terms – to repay the principal of the bond at the maturity date as well as interest over a specified amount of time.

bond salesman methodCurrent price of a bond based on interest rates and principal

bond yield ratesA formula to estimate yield rate for a bond

book valuethe amount a bond pays out in interest

booleanthe value of an asset according to its balance sheet account balance

boolean algebravalue that is either true or false. denoting a system of algebraic notation used to represent logical propositions, especially in computing and electronics.

borrowbranch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0

boxcarsto take (one) from a digit of the minuend in subtraction in order to add as 10 to the digit holding the next lower place.

boyles lawSlang for a pair of dice showing sixes on each die

brahmaguptas formulathe pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship, when temperature is held constant.

P_{1}V_{1}= P_{2}V_{2}

brailleA Euclidean geometry formula used to find the area of any cyclic quadrilateral (inscribed in a circle)

braking distancewriting system used by people who are visually impaired

break evenAmount of space required to stop a moving vehicle at a certain speed

bretschneiders formulathe point where your total revenue (sales or turnover) equals total costs such that profit is zero

budgetAlternative formula to determine the area of a quadrilateral

A = sqrt[(s - a)(s - b)(s - c)(s - d) - abcd · cos^{2}(0.5(α + y))]

budget line equationan estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time. In economics, a budget constraint represents all the combinations of goods and services that a consumer may purchase given current prices within his or her given income.

bushelEquation showing all the combinations of goods and services that a consumer may purchase given current prices within his or her given income

I = P_{x}Q_{x}+ P_{y}Q_{y}where I = Income, P denotes price, Q denotes quantity

bytecapacity measurement

Unit of memory size