Math Glossary Letter B
babylonian method
noun
A method to find square roots using dividing and averaging
Bachet Conjecture
noun
Also known as Lagrange's four square theorem - every natural number can be stated as the sum of four integer squares
bakshali method
noun
A square root method using perfect squares
balance
noun
the difference between the sum of debit entries and the sum of credit entries entered into an account during a financial period
balance equations
noun
A method of shuffling numbers and signs to get two sides of an equation to equal each other
balance sheet
noun
financial statement summarizing a company's assets, liabilities and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time
balance with interest
noun
The value of a fund when a balance is credited with interest for a specific period of time at a certain interest rate
basal metabolic rate
noun
A measure of energy expenditure while at rest
base conversion
noun
Converting a number in one base to another base
baseball
noun
game played between two teams of nine players each who take turns batting and fielding
basic math
noun
Elementary math subject to help students understand fundamentals, before moving on to more difficult subjects
bayes rule
noun
Probability of an event, based on existing preconditions of other events
bearing
verb
Angle measurement of a direction
benchmark fractions
noun
common fraction that gives you a reference to measure other fractionswith
bending beams displacement
noun
he behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.
benfords law
noun
the principle that in any large, randomly produced set of natural numbers, such as tables of logarithms or corporate sales statistics
30.1% will begin with the digit 1
17.6% will begin with the digit 2
12.5% will begin with the digit 3
9.7% will begin with the digit 4
7.9% will begin with the digit 5
6.7% will begin with the digit 6
5.8% will begin with the digit 7
5.1% will begin with the digit 8
4.6% will begin with the digit 9


Log10(1 + 1/d)
bernoulli distribution
noun
A discrete distribution with two possible outcomes, n = 0, and n = 1
bernoulli trials
noun
Repeating an experiment using a bernoulli distribution
beta
noun
A letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.

Β  β
better buy
noun
Comparing two price and quantity measurements to see which offer is better
bigram
noun
Two adjacent elements of letters, symbols, or words
bill
noun
the amount due for products or services rendered including current charges and previous unpaid balance, plus or minus any adjustments.
binary
noun
Base 2 for numbers
bingo
noun
game of chance in which each player matches numbers pre-printed in different arrangements on 55 cards
binomial
noun
Polynomial which is the sum of two monomials
binomial distribution
noun
discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent experiments, with a success or failure outcome
binomial multiplication
noun
Multiplying two binomials using the FOIL method
binomial option pricing model
noun
iterative number tree for pricing options
binomial theorem
noun
algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial
binomials
noun
Polynomial which is the sum of two monomials
biology
noun
study of life and living organisms, including their physical and chemical structure, function, development and evolution
bisect
noun
Cut an angle into 2 equal parts.
bit shifting
verb
operation performed on the bits of a value, moving them either left or right
bitwise
noun
operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the individual bit level
bitwise AND
noun
eturns a 1 in each bit position for which the corresponding bits of both operands are 1s.
bitwise NOT
noun
flips the set of bits you give it, changing all the 1s to 0s and all the 0s to 1s.

~
bitwise OR
noun
bitwise XOR
noun
a binary operation that takes two bit patterns of equal length and performs the logical exclusive OR operation on each pair of corresponding bits. The result in each position is 1 if only one of the bits is 1, but will be 0 if both are 0 or both are 1.
black-scholes
noun
pricing model used to determine the fair price or theoretical value for a call or a put option
blackjack
noun
A game of chance played with cards
BMI
noun
Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight
BMR
noun
Basal Metabolic Rate - How many calories you would burn at rest for 24 hours.
body mass index
noun
Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight
bond
noun
a type of security under which the issuer owes the holder a debt, and is obliged depending on the terms to repay the principal of the bond at the maturity date as well as interest over a specified amount of time.
bond price
noun
Current price of a bond based on interest rates and principal
bond salesman method
noun
A formula to estimate yield rate for a bond
bond yield rates
noun
the amount a bond pays out in interest
book value
noun
the value of an asset according to its balance sheet account balance
boolean
noun
value that is either true or false. denoting a system of algebraic notation used to represent logical propositions, especially in computing and electronics.
boolean algebra
noun
branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0
borrow
noun
to take (one) from a digit of the minuend in subtraction in order to add as 10 to the digit holding the next lower place.
boxcars
noun
Slang for a pair of dice showing sixes on each die
boyles law
noun
the pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship, when temperature is held constant.

P1V1 = P2V2
brahmaguptas formula
noun
A Euclidean geometry formula used to find the area of any cyclic quadrilateral (inscribed in a circle)
braille
noun
writing system used by people who are visually impaired
braking distance
noun
Amount of space required to stop a moving vehicle at a certain speed
break even
noun
the point where your total revenue (sales or turnover) equals total costs such that profit is zero
bretschneiders formula
noun
Alternative formula to determine the area of a quadrilateral

A = sqrt[(s - a)(s - b)(s - c)(s - d) - abcd · cos2(0.5(α + y))]
budget
noun
an estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time. In economics, a budget constraint represents all the combinations of goods and services that a consumer may purchase given current prices within his or her given income.
budget line equation
noun
Equation showing all the combinations of goods and services that a consumer may purchase given current prices within his or her given income

I = PxQx + PyQy where I = Income, P denotes price, Q denotes quantity
bushel
noun
capacity measurement
byte
noun
Unit of memory size