Math Glossary Letter C
caesar box
noun
a transposition cipher used in the Roman Empire, in which letters of the message are written in rows in a square (or a rectangle) and then, read by column.
calculus
noun
the mathematical study of continuous change
calendar
noun
a chart or series of pages showing the days, weeks, and months of a particular year
call option
noun
an option to buy assets at an agreed price on or before a particular date
call price
noun
he price at which the issuer of a callable security has the right to buy back that security from an investor or creditor
cancel
noun
removing subexpressions from a mathematical expression only when the subexpressions are equal or have opposing effects
capacity
noun
the maximum amount that something can contain
capital asset pricing model
noun
a model used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset
capital budgeting
verb
the process a business undertakes to evaluate potential major projects or investments
capitalized cost
noun
a cost that is incurred from the purchase of a fixed asset that is expected to directly produce an economic benefit
capm
noun
Capitalized Asset Pricing Model: a model used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset
cardinality
noun
a measure of the number of elements of the set
cardioid
noun
a heart-shaped curve. a plane curve traced by a point on the perimeter of a circle that is rolling around a fixed circle of the same radius.

carry
noun
a digit that is transferred from one column of digits to another column of more significant digits
cartesian
noun
a plane is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular oriented lines, measured in the same unit of length
cartesian coordinate
noun
coordinate system consists of a horizontal x-axis and a vertical y-axis
cartesian product
noun
the product of two sets: the product of set X and set Y is the set that contains all ordered pairs ( x, y ) for which x belongs to X and y belongs to Y

A x B
cash flow
noun
the total amount of money being transferred into and out of a business, especially as affecting liquidity.
catalan numbers
noun
a sequence of positive integers that appear in many counting problems in combinatorics

Cn = (2n)! / ((n + 1)! n!)
cauchy schwarz inequality
noun
the lengths of the dot product of vectors is less than or equal to the product of the lengths of the vectors
ceiling
verb
the least integer number greater than or equal to the given number.

⌈,x⌉,
celsius
noun
temperature scale is used for measuring temperature in the metric system

centigram
noun
a metric unit of mass, equal to one hundredth of a gram.
centisecond
noun
A unit of time equal to 0.01 seconds and with symbol cs

cs
central limit theorem
noun
if you have a population with mean μ and standard deviation σ and take sufficiently large random samples from the population with replacement , then the distribution of the sample means will be approximately normally distributed.
central tendency
noun
a central or typical value for a probability distribution. Typical measures are the mode, median, mean
centroid
noun
the point in a triangle where the three medians coincide
century
noun
100 years
cevian
noun
line that intersects both a triangles vertex, and also the side that is opposite to that vertex
chain discount
noun
a series of trade discount percentages or their total
change
noun
A measure in difference
change of base
noun
used to re-write a logarithm operation as a fraction of logarithms with a new base.
character
noun
a piece of data at least one item long
charles law
noun
an experimental gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when heated

V1/T1 = V2/T2
chebyshevs theorem
noun
estimates the minimum proportion of observations that fall within a specified number of standard deviations from the mean.

P(|X - μ|) ≥ kσ) ≤ 1/k2
chemistry
noun
the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter
chi
noun
A letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.

Χ  χ
chi-square test
noun
a statistical hypothesis test that is valid to perform when the test statistic is chi-squared distributed under the null hypothesis, specifically Pearsons chi-squared test
chinese remainder theorem
noun
ancient theorem that gives the conditions necessary for multiple equations to have a simultaneous integer solution
cholesterol
noun
A waxy, fat-like substance made in the liver, and found in the blood and in all cells of the body
chord
noun
a straight line segment whose endpoints both lie on a circular arc
circle
noun
the set of all points in the plane that are a fixed distance from a fixed point
circle equation
noun
An equation used to graph a circle
circumference
noun
the perimeter of a circle or ellips
circumradius
noun
a radius of the circle inside which the polygon can be inscribed
class boundary
noun
endpoints used to separate the data into classes or groups.
classify triangles
noun
Using angles and sides to determine if a triangle is acute, right, obtuse, equilateral, scalene, isoseles
clock
noun
a mechanical or electrical device for measuring time, indicating hours, minutes, and sometimes seconds
clock gain and loss
noun
calculates the gain/loss in seconds of a clock over a certain period of time
clock hands meet
noun
Calculates the first time on a clock when the hands will meet or touch again
closest fraction
noun
The fraction with the least distance to another fraction from a list of fractions
coefficient
noun
a numerical or constant quantity placed before and multiplying the variable in an algebraic expression
coefficient of determination
noun
a statistical measurement that examines how differences in one variable can be explained by the difference in a second variable

R2 = 1 - RSS/TSS
cofunction
noun
trigonometric identities that show the relationship between trigonometric ratios pairwise (sine and cosine, tangent and cotangent, secant and cosecant).
coin
noun
A unit of currency
coin combination
noun
A combination of coins adding up to a specific value
coin toss
noun
Flipping a fair coin to determine probability
collatz conjecture
noun
Algorithm that uses the 3n + 1 algorithm which will always reach the number 1.
collection period
noun
the length of time a business needs to collect its accounts receivables
collinear
noun
points that lie on a straight line
color
noun
the property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way the object reflects or emits light
combination
noun
a mathematical technique that determines the number of possible arrangements in a collection of items where the order of the selection does not matter

nPr = n!/r!(n - r)!
combined gas law
noun
the ratio of the product of pressure and volume and the absolute temperature of a gas is equal to a constant.

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
combined ratio
noun
genrated by taking the product of the antecedents of all the ratios as antecedents and the product of the consequents of all the ratios as consequents
combined variation
noun
a situation where a variable depends on two (or more) other variables, and can vary directly or inversely with variables (when the rest of the variables are held constant).
combining like terms
noun
adding or subtracting the numerical coefficients of like terms
commission
noun
Payment made on a sale to the salesman
common core state standards
noun
an educational initiative from 2010 that details what K12 students throughout the United States should know in English language arts and mathematics at the conclusion of each school grade.
commutative property of addition
noun
the numbers on which we add can be moved or swapped from their position without making any difference to the answer
commutative property of multiplication
noun
the numbers on which we multiply can be moved or swapped from their position without making any difference to the answer
compare
noun
estimate, measure, or note the similarity or difference between
compare numbers
noun
A test to see if one number is equal to the other number, less than the other number, or greater than the other number
comparison
noun
a process or method in which one can determine whether a number is smaller, greater, or equal to another number according to their values.
complement
noun
a set of elements in the universal set that is not part of the original set.

AC
complement
noun
The opposite of an event happening

AC
complementary angle
noun
Two angles are complementary angles if the sum of their measures is equal to 90°
complete the square
noun
a technique for converting a quadratic polynomial of the form ax2 + bx + c to a(x - h)2 + k
complex number
noun
a number that can be written in the form a + b or a - bi
composite numbers
noun
a positive integer that can be formed by multiplying two smaller positive integers
compound discount
noun
a discount that automatically changes for every unit of your product
compound inequality
noun
an inequality that combines two simple inequalities
compound interest
noun
the interest you earn on principal and interest

A = (1 + r/n)nt
compound interest table
noun
A table showing values for interest rates and time for compound interest
concatenation
noun
the action of linking things together in a series
concavity
noun
the rate of change of a functions derivative
cone
noun
a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base to a point called the apex or vertex
confidence interval
noun
a range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it.
confidence interval for paired means
noun
a range of values that is likely to contain a population paired means with a certain level of confidence
confidence interval for the difference of means
noun
a range of values that is likely to contain a population difference of means with a certain level of confidence
confidence interval for the mean
noun
a way of estimating the true population mean
confidence interval for variance and standard deviation
noun
a range of values that is likely to contain a population standard deviation or variance with a certain level of confidence
confidence interval of a proportion
noun
the probability that a population parameter will fall between a set of values for a certain proportion of times.
congruence
noun
a problem of finding an integer x that satisfies the equation ax = b (mod m)
congruence modulo n
noun
Occurs when two numbers have a difference that is a multiple of n.
congruent
noun
identical in form

conjugate
noun
A term formed by changing the sign between two terms in a binomial.
conjunction
noun
a type of compound statement that is comprised of two propositions (also known as simple statements) joined by the AND operator
conjunction
noun
a word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause
consecutive integers
noun
integers that follow each other

n, n + 1
consecutive interior angles
noun
the pairs of angles that are between two lines and on the same side of the line cutting through the two lines.
consonant
noun
Sounds which are blocked by the tongue, teeth, or lips in some way.

B, C, D, F, H, G, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z
constant
noun
a value that always assumes the same value independent of how its parameters are varied
constant of proportionality
noun
the ratio that relates two given values in what is known as a proportional relationship

k
consumption
noun
an activity in which institutional units use up goods or services
continued fraction
noun
a fraction whose numerator is an integer and whose denominator is an integer plus a fraction whose numerator is an integer and whose denominator is an integer plus a fraction and so on
continuity correction factor
noun
the bridge between the continuous normal distribution and the discrete binomial
continuous annuity
noun
a type of guaranteed annuity where the annuity issuer is required to make payments for at least a specified number of years
continuous compounding
verb
the process of calculating interest and reinvesting it into an account balance over an infinite number of periods
continuous interest
noun
the process of calculating interest and reinvesting it into an account balance over an infinite number of periods.

P(t) = P0ert
continuous random variable
noun
one which takes an infinite number of possible values
conversion
noun
a number used to change one set of units to another, by multiplying or dividing
coordinates
noun
A set of values that show an exact position
coordinating conjunction
noun
A conjunction that connects words, phrases, and clauses that are equal to each other

FANBOYS
coprime
noun
Two numbers who have one common divisor of 1
corollary
noun
A proposition formed from a proven proposition
correlation
noun
a statistical measure that expresses the extent to which two variables are linearly related
correlation coefficient
noun
a statistical measure of the strength of a linear relationship between two variables
cos
noun
cos(θ) is the ratio of the adjacent side of angle θ to the hypotenuse
cosecant
noun
the length of the hypotenuse divided by the length of the adjacent side. Also equals 1/sin(θ)
cosine
noun
cos(θ) is the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse.
cosine ratio
noun
A measurement to calculate the ratio of sides in a trianglethe ratio of the side adjacent to the represented base angle over the hypotenuse.

Adjacent / Hypotenuse
cost
noun
an amount that has to be paid or spent to buy or obtain something
cost function
noun
A function also called the cost curve, expressing production costs in terms of the amount produced

C(x)
cost of carry
noun
costs associated with the carrying value of an investment.
cost recovery method
noun
method in which a business does not recognize profit related to a sale until the cash collected exceeds the cost of the good or service sold
cost utility ratio
noun
Measures the quotient of cost to utility

C/U
cot
noun
The length of the adjacent side divided by the length of the side opposite the angle. Also equals 1/tan(θ)
cotangent
noun
The length of the adjacent side divided by the length of the side opposite the angle. Also equals 1/tan(θ)
coterminal angles
noun
the angles that have the same initial side and share the terminal sides
count
noun
determine the total number of a collection of items
counting
verb
taking account of when reaching a total; including
coupon
noun
the annual interest rate paid on a bond, expressed as a percentage of the face value and paid from issue date until maturity.
covariance
noun
a measure of how much two random variables vary together
covered compensation
noun
the average of the taxable wage bases in effect for each calendar year during the 35-year period ending with the last day of the calendar year in which the employee attains social security retirement age.
cox-ross-rubenstein pricing
verb
a multi-period market model
cramers rule
noun
an explicit formula for the solution of a system of linear equations with as many equations as unknowns
credit card
noun
a small plastic card issued by a bank, business, etc., allowing the holder to purchase goods or services on credit.
cribbage
noun
a card game, traditionally for two players, that involves playing and grouping cards in combinations which gain points.
critical t value
noun
a point that cuts off area under the student t distribution.
critical value
noun
a point on the distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis that defines a set of values that call for rejecting the null hypothesis.
critical z value
noun
a point that cuts off area under the standard normal distribution.
cross multiply
noun
to clear an equation of fractions when each side consists of a fraction with a single denominator by multiplying the numerator of each side by the denominator of the other side and equating the two products obtained.

a/b = c/d → ad = bc
cross partition
noun
Intersection of all items of two sets
cross product
noun
a binary operation on two vectors in a three-dimensional oriented Euclidean vector space
Cryptography
noun
Cryptography is the study of the algorithms and methods used to convert plaintext into ciphertext.
csc
noun
the length of the hypotenuse divided by the length of the adjacent side. Also equals 1/sin(θ)
cube
noun
solid three-dimensional figure, which has 6 square faces, 8 vertices and 12 edges
cubic equation
noun
An equation of the form ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0
cubic meter
noun
the unit of volume in the International System of Units. Volume of a cube with edges equal to 1 meter

m3
cuboid
noun
A six-faced solid. Its faces are quadrilaterals
cumulative density function
noun
A method to describe the distribution of random variables. the probability that X will take a value less than or equal to x
cup
noun
a cooking measure of volume, commonly associated with cooking and serving sizes. In the US, it is traditionally equal to one-half US pint
currency
noun
a system of money in general use in a particular country.
current
noun
the rate of flow of electricity. The unit of current is the ampere (A) which is defined as 1 ampere = 1 coulomb per second.
cycle time
noun
the amount of time a team spends actually working on producing an item, up until the product is ready for shipment
cylinder
noun
a solid geometric figure with straight parallel sides and a circular or oval cross section.