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caesar box

calculusa transposition cipher used in the Roman Empire, in which letters of the message are written in rows in a square (or a rectangle) and then, read by column.

calendarthe mathematical study of continuous change

call optiona chart or series of pages showing the days, weeks, and months of a particular year

call pricean option to buy assets at an agreed price on or before a particular date

cancelhe price at which the issuer of a callable security has the right to buy back that security from an investor or creditor

capacityremoving subexpressions from a mathematical expression only when the subexpressions are equal or have opposing effects

capital asset pricing modelthe maximum amount that something can contain

capital budgetinga model used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset

capitalized costthe process a business undertakes to evaluate potential major projects or investments

capma cost that is incurred from the purchase of a fixed asset that is expected to directly produce an economic benefit

cardinalityCapitalized Asset Pricing Model: a model used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset

cardioida measure of the number of elements of the set

carrya heart-shaped curve. a plane curve traced by a point on the perimeter of a circle that is rolling around a fixed circle of the same radius.

cartesiana digit that is transferred from one column of digits to another column of more significant digits

cartesian coordinatea plane is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular oriented lines, measured in the same unit of length

cartesian productcoordinate system consists of a horizontal x-axis and a vertical y-axis

cash flowthe product of two sets: the product of set X and set Y is the set that contains all ordered pairs ( x, y ) for which x belongs to X and y belongs to Y

A x B

catalan numbersthe total amount of money being transferred into and out of a business, especially as affecting liquidity.

cauchy schwarz inequalitya sequence of positive integers that appear in many counting problems in combinatorics

C_{n}= (2n)! / ((n + 1)! n!)

ceilingthe lengths of the dot product of vectors is less than or equal to the product of the lengths of the vectors

celsiusthe least integer number greater than or equal to the given number.

⌈,x⌉,

centigramtemperature scale is used for measuring temperature in the metric system

C°

centiseconda metric unit of mass, equal to one hundredth of a gram.

central limit theoremA unit of time equal to 0.01 seconds and with symbol cs

cs

central tendencyif you have a population with mean μ and standard deviation σ and take sufficiently large random samples from the population with replacement , then the distribution of the sample means will be approximately normally distributed.

centroida central or typical value for a probability distribution. Typical measures are the mode, median, mean

centurythe point in a triangle where the three medians coincide

cevian100 years

chain discountline that intersects both a triangles vertex, and also the side that is opposite to that vertex

changea series of trade discount percentages or their total

change of baseA measure in difference

characterused to re-write a logarithm operation as a fraction of logarithms with a new base.

charles lawa piece of data at least one item long

chebyshevs theoreman experimental gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when heated

V1/T1 = V2/T2

chemistryestimates the minimum proportion of observations that fall within a specified number of standard deviations from the mean.

P(|X - μ|) ≥ kσ) ≤ 1/k^{2}

chithe scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter

chi-square testA letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.

Χ χ

chinese remainder theorema statistical hypothesis test that is valid to perform when the test statistic is chi-squared distributed under the null hypothesis, specifically Pearsons chi-squared test

cholesterolancient theorem that gives the conditions necessary for multiple equations to have a simultaneous integer solution

chordA waxy, fat-like substance made in the liver, and found in the blood and in all cells of the body

circlea straight line segment whose endpoints both lie on a circular arc

circle equationthe set of all points in the plane that are a fixed distance from a fixed point

circumferenceAn equation used to graph a circle

circumradiusthe perimeter of a circle or ellips

class boundarya radius of the circle inside which the polygon can be inscribed

classify trianglesendpoints used to separate the data into classes or groups.

clockUsing angles and sides to determine if a triangle is acute, right, obtuse, equilateral, scalene, isoseles

clock gain and lossa mechanical or electrical device for measuring time, indicating hours, minutes, and sometimes seconds

clock hands meetcalculates the gain/loss in seconds of a clock over a certain period of time

closest fractionCalculates the first time on a clock when the hands will meet or touch again

coefficientThe fraction with the least distance to another fraction from a list of fractions

coefficient of determinationa numerical or constant quantity placed before and multiplying the variable in an algebraic expression

cofunctiona statistical measurement that examines how differences in one variable can be explained by the difference in a second variable

R^{2}= 1 - RSS/TSS

cointrigonometric identities that show the relationship between trigonometric ratios pairwise (sine and cosine, tangent and cotangent, secant and cosecant).

coin combinationA unit of currency

coin tossA combination of coins adding up to a specific value

collatz conjectureFlipping a fair coin to determine probability

collection periodAlgorithm that uses the 3n + 1 algorithm which will always reach the number 1.

collinearthe length of time a business needs to collect its accounts receivables

colorpoints that lie on a straight line

combinationthe property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way the object reflects or emits light

combined gas lawa mathematical technique that determines the number of possible arrangements in a collection of items where the order of the selection does not matter_{n}P_{r}= n!/r!(n - r)!

combined ratiothe ratio of the product of pressure and volume and the absolute temperature of a gas is equal to a constant.

P_{1}V_{1}/T_{1}= P_{2}V_{2}/T_{2}

combined variationgenrated by taking the product of the antecedents of all the ratios as antecedents and the product of the consequents of all the ratios as consequents

combining like termsa situation where a variable depends on two (or more) other variables, and can vary directly or inversely with variables (when the rest of the variables are held constant).

commissionadding or subtracting the numerical coefficients of like terms

common core state standardsPayment made on a sale to the salesman

commutative property of additionan educational initiative from 2010 that details what K–12 students throughout the United States should know in English language arts and mathematics at the conclusion of each school grade.

commutative property of multiplicationthe numbers on which we add can be moved or swapped from their position without making any difference to the answer

comparethe numbers on which we multiply can be moved or swapped from their position without making any difference to the answer

compare numbersestimate, measure, or note the similarity or difference between

comparisonA test to see if one number is equal to the other number, less than the other number, or greater than the other number

complementa process or method in which one can determine whether a number is smaller, greater, or equal to another number according to their values.

complementa set of elements in the universal set that is not part of the original set.

A^{C}

complementary angleThe opposite of an event happening

A^{C}

complete the squareTwo angles are complementary angles if the sum of their measures is equal to 90°

complex numbera technique for converting a quadratic polynomial of the form ax^{2}+ bx + c to a(x - h)^{2}+ k

composite numbersa number that can be written in the form a + b or a - bi

compound discounta positive integer that can be formed by multiplying two smaller positive integers

compound inequalitya discount that automatically changes for every unit of your product

compound interestan inequality that combines two simple inequalities

compound interest tablethe interest you earn on principal and interest

A = (1 + r/n)^{nt}

concatenationA table showing values for interest rates and time for compound interest

concavitythe action of linking things together in a series

conethe rate of change of a functions derivative

confidence intervala three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base to a point called the apex or vertex

confidence interval for paired meansa range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it.

confidence interval for the difference of meansa range of values that is likely to contain a population paired means with a certain level of confidence

confidence interval for the meana range of values that is likely to contain a population difference of means with a certain level of confidence

confidence interval for variance and standard deviationa way of estimating the true population mean

confidence interval of a proportiona range of values that is likely to contain a population standard deviation or variance with a certain level of confidence

congruencethe probability that a population parameter will fall between a set of values for a certain proportion of times.

congruence modulo na problem of finding an integer x that satisfies the equation ax = b (mod m)

congruentOccurs when two numbers have a difference that is a multiple of n.

conjugateidentical in form

≅

conjunctionA term formed by changing the sign between two terms in a binomial.

conjunctiona type of compound statement that is comprised of two propositions (also known as simple statements) joined by the AND operator

consecutive integersa word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause

consecutive interior anglesintegers that follow each other

n, n + 1

consonantthe pairs of angles that are between two lines and on the same side of the line cutting through the two lines.

constantSounds which are blocked by the tongue, teeth, or lips in some way.

B, C, D, F, H, G, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z

constant of proportionalitya value that always assumes the same value independent of how its parameters are varied

consumptionthe ratio that relates two given values in what is known as a proportional relationship

k

continued fractionan activity in which institutional units use up goods or services

continuity correction factora fraction whose numerator is an integer and whose denominator is an integer plus a fraction whose numerator is an integer and whose denominator is an integer plus a fraction and so on

continuous annuitythe bridge between the continuous normal distribution and the discrete binomial

continuous compoundinga type of guaranteed annuity where the annuity issuer is required to make payments for at least a specified number of years

continuous interestthe process of calculating interest and reinvesting it into an account balance over an infinite number of periods

continuous random variablethe process of calculating interest and reinvesting it into an account balance over an infinite number of periods.

P(t) = P_{0}e^{rt}

conversionone which takes an infinite number of possible values

coordinatesa number used to change one set of units to another, by multiplying or dividing

coordinating conjunctionA set of values that show an exact position

coprimeA conjunction that connects words, phrases, and clauses that are equal to each other

FANBOYS

corollaryTwo numbers who have one common divisor of 1

correlationA proposition formed from a proven proposition

correlation coefficienta statistical measure that expresses the extent to which two variables are linearly related

cosa statistical measure of the strength of a linear relationship between two variables

cosecantcos(θ) is the ratio of the adjacent side of angle θ to the hypotenuse

cosinethe length of the hypotenuse divided by the length of the adjacent side. Also equals 1/sin(θ)

cosine ratiocos(θ) is the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse.

costA measurement to calculate the ratio of sides in a trianglethe ratio of the side adjacent to the represented base angle over the hypotenuse.

Adjacent / Hypotenuse

cost functionan amount that has to be paid or spent to buy or obtain something

cost of carryA function also called the cost curve, expressing production costs in terms of the amount produced

C(x)

cost recovery methodcosts associated with the carrying value of an investment.

cost utility ratiomethod in which a business does not recognize profit related to a sale until the cash collected exceeds the cost of the good or service sold

cotMeasures the quotient of cost to utility

C/U

cotangentThe length of the adjacent side divided by the length of the side opposite the angle. Also equals 1/tan(θ)

coterminal anglesThe length of the adjacent side divided by the length of the side opposite the angle. Also equals 1/tan(θ)

countthe angles that have the same initial side and share the terminal sides

countingdetermine the total number of a collection of items

coupontaking account of when reaching a total; including

covariancethe annual interest rate paid on a bond, expressed as a percentage of the face value and paid from issue date until maturity.

covered compensationa measure of how much two random variables vary together

cox-ross-rubenstein pricingthe average of the taxable wage bases in effect for each calendar year during the 35-year period ending with the last day of the calendar year in which the employee attains social security retirement age.

cramers rulea multi-period market model

credit cardan explicit formula for the solution of a system of linear equations with as many equations as unknowns

cribbagea small plastic card issued by a bank, business, etc., allowing the holder to purchase goods or services on credit.

critical t valuea card game, traditionally for two players, that involves playing and grouping cards in combinations which gain points.

critical valuea point that cuts off area under the student t distribution.

critical z valuea point on the distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis that defines a set of values that call for rejecting the null hypothesis.

cross multiplya point that cuts off area under the standard normal distribution.

cross partitionto clear an equation of fractions when each side consists of a fraction with a single denominator by multiplying the numerator of each side by the denominator of the other side and equating the two products obtained.

a/b = c/d → ad = bc

cross productIntersection of all items of two sets

Cryptographya binary operation on two vectors in a three-dimensional oriented Euclidean vector space

cscCryptography is the study of the algorithms and methods used to convert plaintext into ciphertext.

cubethe length of the hypotenuse divided by the length of the adjacent side. Also equals 1/sin(θ)

cubic equationsolid three-dimensional figure, which has 6 square faces, 8 vertices and 12 edges

cubic meterAn equation of the form ax^{3}+ bx^{2}+ cx + d = 0

cuboidthe unit of volume in the International System of Units. Volume of a cube with edges equal to 1 meter

m^{3}

cumulative density functionA six-faced solid. Its faces are quadrilaterals

cupA method to describe the distribution of random variables. the probability that X will take a value less than or equal to x

currencya cooking measure of volume, commonly associated with cooking and serving sizes. In the US, it is traditionally equal to one-half US pint

currenta system of money in general use in a particular country.

cycle timethe rate of flow of electricity. The unit of current is the ampere (A) which is defined as 1 ampere = 1 coulomb per second.

cylinderthe amount of time a team spends actually working on producing an item, up until the product is ready for shipment

a solid geometric figure with straight parallel sides and a circular or oval cross section.