Math Glossary Letter S salary noun a fixed regular payment, typically paid on a monthly or biweekly basis but often expressed as an annual sum, made by an employer to an employee, especially a professional or white-collar worker. sale noun the exchange of a commodity or service for money; the action of selling something sales noun Exchange of good or service for money sales price variance noun the difference between a business's expected price of a product or service and its actual sales price sales tax noun a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services. salvage value noun the estimated book value of an asset after depreciation is complete, based on what a company expects to receive in exchange for the asset at the end of its useful life. sample mean noun an average value found in a sample sample size noun measures the number of individual samples measured or observations used in a survey or experiment. sample space noun the set of all possible outcomes or results of that experiment. savings noun the money that a person has left over after they subtract out their consumer spending from their disposable income over a given time period scalar multiplication noun Multiply a vector by a positive real number without changing the direction scalene triangle noun a triangle with three unequal sides scientific notation noun a way of expressing numbers that are too large or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form sea level noun The base level for measuring elevation and depth on Earth. We mark this as 0 for elevation. sec noun the length of the hypotenuse divided by the length of the adjacent side. Also equals 1/cos(θ) secant noun the length of the hypotenuse divided by the length of the adjacent side. Also equals 1/cos(θ) second noun unit of time equal to 1/86400 of a day sector noun a pie-shaped part of a circle made of the arc along with its two radii(θ/360°) * πr^{2} , where θ is measured in degrees. sectoral balance noun government budget deficits add net financial assets to the private sector. security market line noun is the representation of the capital asset pricing model. It displays the expected rate of return of an individual security as a function of systematic, non-diversifiable risk. Expected Return = Rf + Β(Rm - Rf) segment noun part of a straight line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line that is between its endpoints. semi-perimeter noun half the perimeter of a polygons = P/2 semi-theoretical method noun A method to price a bond sequence noun an arrangement of numbers or collection or objects in a particular order series noun the cumulative sum of a given sequence of terms service output depreciation noun a depreciation method that results in the cost basis allocated equally over the expected number of units produced during the period of tangible properties set noun a collection of different things; a set contains elements or members, which can be mathematical objects of any kind set builder notation noun a mathematical notation for describing a set by enumerating its elements, or stating the properties that its members must satisfy set notation noun Ways of writing sets and their elements and properties set theory noun branch of mathematics that deals with the properties of well-defined collections of objects sextuple noun Multiply by 6 sha1 noun Secure Hash Algorithm 1 is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value shadow noun a dark area or shape produced by a body coming between rays of light and a surface. shadow length noun Distance of a shadow relative to the reflection of the sun sharpe ratio noun measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an risky investment(Return on Assets - Risk Free Rate)/Standard Deviation short division noun a division algorithm which breaks down a division problem into a series of easier steps short sale noun when you sell your home for less than the balance remaining on your mortgage side noun line segment joining two vertices in a polygon also known as an edge Side Angle Side noun If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to two sides and the included angle of another triangle, the triangles are congruent. Side Side Angle noun if two sides and the angle formed by these two sides are equal to two sides and the included angle of another triangle, then these triangles are said to be congruent. side side side noun all three sides of a triangle are equal to the corresponding three sides of a second triangle. sieve of eratosthenes noun an ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit Sigma noun A letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.Σ σ sign test noun a statistical method to test for consistent differences between pairs of observations signed integer noun an integer that can be both positive and negative signum noun an odd mathematical function that extracts the sign of a real number similar expressions noun expressions that work the same even though they look different. similar text noun Estimate the degree of similarity between two texts simple discount noun Reverse of simple interest simple interest noun determined by multiplying the daily interest rate by the principal by the number of days that elapse between payments.A = P(1 + rt) simplest exponent form noun a way of writing numbers using bases and powers. It tells us how many times are we actually multiplying a number to get the result. simplify noun reducing the expression/fraction/problem in a simpler form. simpsons rule noun a numerical method for approximating the integral of a function between two limits, a and b simultaneous equations noun two or more algebraic equations that share variables sin noun sin(θ) is the ratio of the opposite side of angle θ to the hypotenuse sin ratio noun the ratio of the length of the opposite side divided by the length of the hypotenuse sine noun the ratio of the length of the opposite side divided by the length of the hypotenuse sine wave noun a geometric waveform that oscillates (moves up, down, or side-to-side) periodically, and is defined by the function y = sin xy = sin(x) sinking fund noun a fund formed by periodically setting aside money for the gradual repayment of a debt or replacement of a wasting asset. sinking fund depreciation method noun technique for depreciating an asset while generating enough money to replace it at the end of its useful life skewness noun measure of the asymmetry of the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable about its mean skip counting verb a method of counting numbers by adding a number every time to the previous number slope noun Change in y over change in x slope of a line noun The measure of the change in y to the change in x on a line(y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1) snake eyes noun Rolling two dice where the values on both dice equal 1 social security noun a federal insurance program that provides benefits to retired people and those who are unemployed or disabled solid geometry noun the geometry of three-dimensional, Euclidean spaces solution noun The answer to a math problem if it exists sorting fractions noun Ordering fractions by highest to lowest or lowest to highest soundex noun a coded surname index (using the first letter of the last name and three digits) based on the way a name sounds rather than the way it is spelled spearmans rank correlation coefficient noun a technique which can be used to summarise the strength and direction (negative or positive) of a relationship between two variables speed noun the rate at which someone or something is able to move or operates = d/t where d is distance travelled and t is time elapsed sphere noun a geometrical object that is a three-dimensional analogue to a two-dimensional circle sports pool noun A system of betting on sports games with multiple people square noun a plane figure (regular quadrilateral) with four equal straight sides and four right angles square root noun a factor of a number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the original number√x square root table noun A table showing the value of square roots for positive integers SSS noun Side-Side-Side. A trigonometry relationship for triangles. If the respective 3 sides of two triangles are congruent, the triangles are congruent. stable noun A structure which will not topple over easily when acted upon by a load standard aptitude test (SAT) noun a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States standard deviation noun a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. The square root of variance standard error noun measures how far the sample mean (average) of the data is likely to be from the true population meanSE = σ/√n standard error of the mean noun measures how far the sample mean (average) of the data is likely to be from the true population meanSE = σ/√n standard notation noun a form of writing a given number, an equation, or an expression in a form that follows certain rules statically determinate noun structure that is stable and all unknown reactive forces can be determined from the equations of equilibrium alone statistics noun Statistics is a discipline concerned with the analysis of data and decision making based upon data. stem and leaf plot noun a technique used to classify either discrete or continuous variables. A stem and leaf plot is used to organize data as they are collected. A stem and leaf plot looks something like a bar graph. Each number in the data is broken down into a stem and a leaf, thus the name. Stirlings approximation noun an approximation for factorials stock noun the shares of which ownership of a corporation or company is divided stock price noun the price of a single share of a number of saleable equity shares of a company. stone noun an English and imperial unit of mass equal to 14 pounds straight noun extending or moving uniformly in one direction only; without a curve or bend straight flush noun 5 cards with all the same suit in chronological order. straight line depreciation noun the simplest method for calculating depreciation over time. Under this method, the same amount of depreciation is deducted from the value of an asset for every year of its useful life. T strain noun the deformation of a material from stress. It is simply a ratio of the change in length to the original length. stress noun the applied force divided by the undeformed area over which the force is applied. string verb an array of characters subfactorial noun calculate the number of permutations of a set of n objects in which none of the elements occur in their natural place!n subset noun A is a subset of B if all elements of the set A are elements of the set B substitute noun to put in the place of another. To replace one value with another substitution noun a simple way to solve linear equations algebraically and find the solutions of the variables. substitution method noun a technique for solving a system of equations using one variable expressed in terms of another subtract verb to take away from a group or a number of things- subtracting verb ake away (a number or amount) from another to calculate the difference. subtraction noun math operation involving the difference of elements subtraction equality property noun balancing an equation by using the same mathematical operation on both sidesIf a = b, then a - c = b - c subtraction property of inequality noun Property in math that states For all real numbers a, b, and c, if a < b, then: a - c < b - c successive division noun When the quotient of the dividend is taken and this is used as the dividend in the next division successive ratio noun ratio between successive terms successive squaring verb an algorithm to compute in a finite field successor noun The number that comes immediately after an integer.n + 1 sudoku noun A logic based number placement puzzle suffix noun an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Adding it to the end of one word changes it into another word sum noun the total amount resulting from the addition of two or more numbers, amounts, or items sum of the years digits depreciation method noun Accelerated deprecation method A higher expense is incurred in the early years and a lower expense in the latter years of the asset&is apos;s useful life supplementary angles noun Two angles are supplementary angles if the sum of their measures is equal to 180° surd noun A number that cannot be simplified to remove a radical sign.√2 surface area noun the amount of space covering the outside of a three-dimensional shape. survival rates noun a part of survival analysis. It is the proportion of people in a study or treatment group still alive at a given period of time after diagnosis suspect outliers noun A value is suspected to be a potential outlier if it is less than (1.5)(IQR) below the first quartile or more than (1.5)(IQR) above the third quartile syllable noun An uninterrupted segment of sound which is formed by the opening and closing of the mouth to form vowels. symbol noun a figure or a combination of figures that is used to represent a mathematical object, an action on mathematical objects, a relation between mathematical objects, or for structuring the other symbols that occur in a formula. symmetric noun made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis symmetric difference noun the set of elements that are in either set, but not in the intersection symmetric equations noun an equation that presents the two variables x and y in relationship to the x-intercept a and the y-intercept b of this line represented in a Cartesian plane symmetric mean absolute percentage error noun an accuracy measure based on percentage (or relative) errors symmetric points noun every point on the opposite sides is the same distance from the central point. symmetric property noun for all real numbers x and y , if x=y , then y=x synthetic division noun a shorthand method for dividing a polynomial by a linear factor system of equations noun Two or more equations that share variables.