Math Glossary Letter S
salary
noun
a fixed regular payment, typically paid on a monthly or biweekly basis but often expressed as an annual sum, made by an employer to an employee, especially a professional or white-collar worker.
sale
noun
the exchange of a commodity or service for money; the action of selling something
sales
noun
Exchange of good or service for money
sales price variance
noun
the difference between a business's expected price of a product or service and its actual sales price
sales tax
noun
a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services.
salvage value
noun
the estimated book value of an asset after depreciation is complete, based on what a company expects to receive in exchange for the asset at the end of its useful life.
sample mean
noun
an average value found in a sample
sample size
noun
measures the number of individual samples measured or observations used in a survey or experiment.
sample space
noun
the set of all possible outcomes or results of that experiment.
savings
noun
the money that a person has left over after they subtract out their consumer spending from their disposable income over a given time period
scalar multiplication
noun
Multiply a vector by a positive real number without changing the direction
scalene triangle
noun
a triangle with three unequal sides
scientific notation
noun
a way of expressing numbers that are too large or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form
sea level
noun
The base level for measuring elevation and depth on Earth. We mark this as 0 for elevation.
sec
noun
the length of the hypotenuse divided by the length of the adjacent side. Also equals 1/cos(θ)
secant
noun
the length of the hypotenuse divided by the length of the adjacent side. Also equals 1/cos(θ)
second
noun
unit of time equal to 1/86400 of a day
sector
noun
a pie-shaped part of a circle made of the arc along with its two radii

(θ/360°) * πr2, where θ is measured in degrees.
sectoral balance
noun
government budget deficits add net financial assets to the private sector.
security market line
noun
is the representation of the capital asset pricing model. It displays the expected rate of return of an individual security as a function of systematic, non-diversifiable risk.

Expected Return = Rf + Β(Rm - Rf)
segment
noun
part of a straight line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line that is between its endpoints.
semi-perimeter
noun
half the perimeter of a polygon

s = P/2
semi-theoretical method
noun
A method to price a bond
sequence
noun
an arrangement of numbers or collection or objects in a particular order
series
noun
the cumulative sum of a given sequence of terms
service output depreciation
noun
a depreciation method that results in the cost basis allocated equally over the expected number of units produced during the period of tangible properties
set
noun
a collection of different things; a set contains elements or members, which can be mathematical objects of any kind
set builder notation
noun
a mathematical notation for describing a set by enumerating its elements, or stating the properties that its members must satisfy
set notation
noun
Ways of writing sets and their elements and properties
set theory
noun
branch of mathematics that deals with the properties of well-defined collections of objects
sextuple
noun
Multiply by 6
sha1
noun
Secure Hash Algorithm 1 is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value
shadow
noun
a dark area or shape produced by a body coming between rays of light and a surface.
shadow length
noun
Distance of a shadow relative to the reflection of the sun
sharpe ratio
noun
measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an risky investment

(Return on Assets - Risk Free Rate)/Standard Deviation
short division
noun
a division algorithm which breaks down a division problem into a series of easier steps
short sale
noun
when you sell your home for less than the balance remaining on your mortgage
side
noun
line segment joining two vertices in a polygon also known as an edge
Side Angle Side
noun
If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to two sides and the included angle of another triangle, the triangles are congruent.
Side Side Angle
noun
if two sides and the angle formed by these two sides are equal to two sides and the included angle of another triangle, then these triangles are said to be congruent.
side side side
noun
all three sides of a triangle are equal to the corresponding three sides of a second triangle.
sieve of eratosthenes
noun
an ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit
Sigma
noun
A letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.

Σ  σ
sign test
noun
a statistical method to test for consistent differences between pairs of observations
signed integer
noun
an integer that can be both positive and negative
signum
noun
an odd mathematical function that extracts the sign of a real number
similar expressions
noun
expressions that work the same even though they look different.
similar text
noun
Estimate the degree of similarity between two texts
simple discount
noun
Reverse of simple interest
simple interest
noun
determined by multiplying the daily interest rate by the principal by the number of days that elapse between payments.

A = P(1 + rt)
simplest exponent form
noun
a way of writing numbers using bases and powers. It tells us how many times are we actually multiplying a number to get the result.
simplify
noun
reducing the expression/fraction/problem in a simpler form.
simpsons rule
noun
a numerical method for approximating the integral of a function between two limits, a and b
simultaneous equations
noun
two or more algebraic equations that share variables
sin
noun
sin(θ) is the ratio of the opposite side of angle θ to the hypotenuse
sin ratio
noun
the ratio of the length of the opposite side divided by the length of the hypotenuse
sine
noun
the ratio of the length of the opposite side divided by the length of the hypotenuse
sine wave
noun
a geometric waveform that oscillates (moves up, down, or side-to-side) periodically, and is defined by the function y = sin x

y = sin(x)
sinking fund
noun
a fund formed by periodically setting aside money for the gradual repayment of a debt or replacement of a wasting asset.
sinking fund depreciation method
noun
technique for depreciating an asset while generating enough money to replace it at the end of its useful life
skewness
noun
measure of the asymmetry of the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable about its mean
skip counting
verb
a method of counting numbers by adding a number every time to the previous number
slope
noun
Change in y over change in x
slope of a line
noun
The measure of the change in y to the change in x on a line

(y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1)
snake eyes
noun
Rolling two dice where the values on both dice equal 1
social security
noun
a federal insurance program that provides benefits to retired people and those who are unemployed or disabled
solid geometry
noun
the geometry of three-dimensional, Euclidean spaces
solution
noun
The answer to a math problem if it exists
sorting fractions
noun
Ordering fractions by highest to lowest or lowest to highest
soundex
noun
a coded surname index (using the first letter of the last name and three digits) based on the way a name sounds rather than the way it is spelled
spearmans rank correlation coefficient
noun
a technique which can be used to summarise the strength and direction (negative or positive) of a relationship between two variables
speed
noun
the rate at which someone or something is able to move or operate

s = d/t where d is distance travelled and t is time elapsed
sphere
noun
a geometrical object that is a three-dimensional analogue to a two-dimensional circle
sports pool
noun
A system of betting on sports games with multiple people
square
noun
a plane figure (regular quadrilateral) with four equal straight sides and four right angles
square root
noun
a factor of a number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the original number

√x
square root table
noun
A table showing the value of square roots for positive integers
SSS
noun
Side-Side-Side. A trigonometry relationship for triangles. If the respective 3 sides of two triangles are congruent, the triangles are congruent.
stable
noun
A structure which will not topple over easily when acted upon by a load
standard aptitude test (SAT)
noun
a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States
standard deviation
noun
a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. The square root of variance
standard error
noun
measures how far the sample mean (average) of the data is likely to be from the true population mean

SE = σ/√n
standard error of the mean
noun
measures how far the sample mean (average) of the data is likely to be from the true population mean

SE = σ/√n
standard notation
noun
a form of writing a given number, an equation, or an expression in a form that follows certain rules
statically determinate
noun
structure that is stable and all unknown reactive forces can be determined from the equations of equilibrium alone
statistics
noun
Statistics is a discipline concerned with the analysis of data and decision making based upon data.
stem and leaf plot
noun
a technique used to classify either discrete or continuous variables. A stem and leaf plot is used to organize data as they are collected. A stem and leaf plot looks something like a bar graph. Each number in the data is broken down into a stem and a leaf, thus the name.
Stirlings approximation
noun
an approximation for factorials
stock
noun
the shares of which ownership of a corporation or company is divided
stock price
noun
the price of a single share of a number of saleable equity shares of a company.
stone
noun
an English and imperial unit of mass equal to 14 pounds
straight
noun
extending or moving uniformly in one direction only; without a curve or bend
straight flush
noun
5 cards with all the same suit in chronological order.
straight line depreciation
noun
the simplest method for calculating depreciation over time. Under this method, the same amount of depreciation is deducted from the value of an asset for every year of its useful life. T
strain
noun
the deformation of a material from stress. It is simply a ratio of the change in length to the original length.
stress
noun
the applied force divided by the undeformed area over which the force is applied.
string
verb
an array of characters
subfactorial
noun
calculate the number of permutations of a set of n objects in which none of the elements occur in their natural place

!n
subset
noun
A is a subset of B if all elements of the set A are elements of the set B
substitute
noun
to put in the place of another. To replace one value with another
substitution
noun
a simple way to solve linear equations algebraically and find the solutions of the variables.
substitution method
noun
a technique for solving a system of equations using one variable expressed in terms of another
subtract
verb
to take away from a group or a number of things

-
subtracting
verb
ake away (a number or amount) from another to calculate the difference.
subtraction
noun
math operation involving the difference of elements
subtraction equality property
noun
balancing an equation by using the same mathematical operation on both sides

If a = b, then a - c = b - c
subtraction property of inequality
noun
Property in math that states For all real numbers a, b, and c, if a < b, then: a - c < b - c
successive division
noun
When the quotient of the dividend is taken and this is used as the dividend in the next division
successive ratio
noun
ratio between successive terms
successive squaring
verb
an algorithm to compute in a finite field
successor
noun
The number that comes immediately after an integer.

n + 1
sudoku
noun
A logic based number placement puzzle
suffix
noun
an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Adding it to the end of one word changes it into another word
sum
noun
the total amount resulting from the addition of two or more numbers, amounts, or items
sum of the years digits depreciation method
noun
Accelerated deprecation method A higher expense is incurred in the early years and a lower expense in the latter years of the asset&is apos;s useful life
supplementary angles
noun
Two angles are supplementary angles if the sum of their measures is equal to 180°
surd
noun
A number that cannot be simplified to remove a radical sign.

√2
surface area
noun
the amount of space covering the outside of a three-dimensional shape.
survival rates
noun
a part of survival analysis. It is the proportion of people in a study or treatment group still alive at a given period of time after diagnosis
suspect outliers
noun
A value is suspected to be a potential outlier if it is less than (1.5)(IQR) below the first quartile or more than (1.5)(IQR) above the third quartile
syllable
noun
An uninterrupted segment of sound which is formed by the opening and closing of the mouth to form vowels.
symbol
noun
a figure or a combination of figures that is used to represent a mathematical object, an action on mathematical objects, a relation between mathematical objects, or for structuring the other symbols that occur in a formula.
symmetric
noun
made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis
symmetric difference
noun
the set of elements that are in either set, but not in the intersection
symmetric equations
noun
an equation that presents the two variables x and y in relationship to the x-intercept a and the y-intercept b of this line represented in a Cartesian plane
symmetric mean absolute percentage error
noun
an accuracy measure based on percentage (or relative) errors
symmetric points
noun
every point on the opposite sides is the same distance from the central point.
symmetric property
noun
for all real numbers x and y , if x=y , then y=x
synthetic division
noun
a shorthand method for dividing a polynomial by a linear factor
system of equations
noun
Two or more equations that share variables.