 # Modular Exponentiation and Successive Squaring Calculator

<-- Enter Modular Exponentiation

### How does the Modular Exponentiation and Successive Squaring Calculator work?

Solves xn mod p using the following methods:
* Modular Exponentiation
* Successive Squaring
This calculator has 1 input.

### What 1 formula is used for the Modular Exponentiation and Successive Squaring Calculator?

1. Successive Squaring I = number of digits in binary form of n. Run this many loops of a2 mod p

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### What 6 concepts are covered in the Modular Exponentiation and Successive Squaring Calculator?

exponent
The power to raise a number
integer
a whole number; a number that is not a fraction
...,-5,-4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4,5,...
modular exponentiation
the remainder when an integer b (the base) is raised to the power e (the exponent), and divided by a positive integer m (the modulus)
modulus
the remainder of a division, after one number is divided by another.
a mod b
remainder
The portion of a division operation leftover after dividing two integers
successive squaring
an algorithm to compute in a finite field