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palindrome

parabolaA word or phrase which reads the same forwards or backwards

parallel linesa plane curve which is approximately U-shaped

parallel planestwo lines which never cross and always the same distance apart

parallel resistorsPlanes that do not cross

parallelogramResistors where their terminals are connected to the same two nodes

parametricsimple quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

parametric equationdefines a group of quantities as functions of one or more independent variables called parameters.

partialdefines a group of quantities as functions of one or more independent variables called parameters.

partial quotientA part of a whole. Incomplete.

partial sumA division algorithm

partitionAn addition algorithm

pascals trianglea grouping of its elements into non-empty subsets, in such a way that every element is included in exactly one subset.

passworda triangular array of the binomial coefficients

past participlea secret word or phrase that must be used to gain admission to something

paybacka participle that typically expresses completed action, that is traditionally one of the principal parts of the verb

payback periodthe length of time it takes to recover the cost of an investment or the length of time an investor needs to reach a breakeven point

peakthe number of years required to recover the original cash investment

pearsons skewness coefficientthe maximum value, either positive (pk+) or negative (pk-), that a waveform attains.

pedmasthe difference between the mean and median, multiplied by three

pedometerA way to handle the order of operations

pemdasA device measuring the number of steps you take

pennyA way to handle the order of operations

pentagonA currency value of one cent

pentagonal numbera polygon of five angles and five sides

percentA number that can be shown as a pentagonal pattern of dots.

n(3n - 1)/2

percent errora specified amount in or for every hundred. one part in every hundred.

n% = n/100

percent offpercentage error between an observed value and the true value of a measurement.

percentageA discount method to subtract something off a full price

percentage changea specified amount in or for every hundred. one part in every hundred.

percentage of completionthe change in value divided by the absolute value of the original value, multiplied by 100

percentage of the piehe reporting of revenues and expenses on a period-by-period basis, as determined by the percentage of the contract that has been fulfilled

percentileA portion of something

perfect numbera score below which a given percentage k of scores in its frequency distribution falls or a score at or below which a given percentage falls.

perimetera positive integer that is equal to the sum of its positive divisors, excluding the number itself.

perimeter of quadrilateralThe distance around a shape or object

periodic chargeThe distance around a quadrilateral

periodic rate of returnthe yearly depreciation amount is divided by the number of periods in the year

periodic tableequals the annual interest rate divided by the number of periods

permutationa tabular display of the chemical elements

perpendiculara way in which a set or number of things can be ordered or arranged._{n}P_{r}= n!/(n - r)!

perpendicular bisectortwo lines which intersect to form a right angle

perpetuitya line or a line segment that divides a given line segment into two parts of equal measurement. Perpendicular bisectors intersect the line segment that they bisect and make four angles of 90° each on both sides

perpetuity dueAn infinite stream of payments

perpetuity immediateAn infinite stream of payments occurring at the beginning of each payment period.

Present Value = P/d

petabyteAn infinite stream of payments occurring at the end of each payment period.

Present Value = P/i

phiAn extremely large unit of digital data, one Petabyte is equal to 1,000 Terabytes

phoneticA letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.

Φ φ

phonetic algorithma branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds

phonogramn algorithm for indexing of words by their pronunciation

photona symbol representing a vocal sound. Phono means sound and gram means picture.

physicsa particle representing a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation.

pithe branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy.

picks theoremA letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.

Π π

piecewise constant interpolationa formula for the area of a simple polygon with integer vertex coordinates, in terms of the number of integer points within it and on its boundary

A = i + b/2 - 1

pintA type of interpolation

place valuea unit of liquid or dry capacity equal to one half of a quart.

planethe numerical value that a digit has by its position in a number.

plane equationa flat, two-dimensional surface that extends indefinitely

plane geometryAn equation to describe the points in a plane

pointdeals in flat shapes that you can draw on a piece of paper, such as squares, circles, and triangles

point estimatean exact location in the space, and has no length, width, or thickness

point slope formthe process of finding an approximate value of some parameter—such as the mean (average)—of a population from random samples of the population.

poisson distributionshow you how to find the equation of a line from a point on that line and the line's slope.

y - y_{1}= m(x - x_{1})

pokera discrete probability distribution that is used to show how many times an event is likely to occur over a specified period.

polara game played with cards in which people try to win money from each other.

polar coordinatea two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction

polar equationa pair of coordinates locating the position of a point in a plane, the first being the length of the straight line ( r ) connecting the point to the origin, and the second the angle ( θ ) made by this line with a fixed line.

polygonany equation that describes a relation between r and θ

polynomialA plane figure bounded by a set of straight lines

polynomial expansionan expression of more than two algebraic terms, especially the sum of several terms that contain different powers of the same variable(s).

polynomial interpolationmultiply out the brackets and then simplify the resulting expression by collecting the like terms

polynomial long divisionthe interpolation of a given data set by the polynomial of lowest possible degree that passes through the points of the dataset.

poolan algorithm for dividing a polynomial by another polynomial of the same or lower degree

populationA tank holding water

population doubling timeall the inhabitants of a particular town, area, or country.

portfolioThe time it takes a population to double in size

portfolio rate of returna range of investments held by a person or organization.

positivethe ratio of the net gain or loss (which is the total of net income, foreign currency appreciation and capital gain, whether realized or not) which a portfolio generates, relative to the size of the portfolio

positive differencenumbers or values greater than 0

postulatemeans the distance between two numbers

powerA statement accepted as true without proof

power sethow many times to use the number in a multiplication

practical methodhe set of all subsets of S, including the empty set and S itself

prealgebraA way to price a bond

precalculusgives you introductory concepts related to numbers and equations to prepare you for Algebra.

precisiona refresher course including a review of topics in algebra and trigonometry necessary to complete Calculus

predecessornumber of digits in a number

prefixThe number that comes immediately before an integer.

n - 1

prefix multiplieran affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word

premiumrepresent quantities that are orders of magnitude larger than the base unit.

present valuea bond which market value is greater than its face value

pressurethe value in the present of a sum of money, in contrast to some future value it will have when it has been invested at compound interest.

PV = FV/(1 + i)^{n}

where I is the interest rate per period, PV = Present Value, and FV = Future Value

pressure lawthe amount of force exerted per area

priceor a given mass and constant volume of an ideal gas, the pressure exerted on the sides of its container is directly proportional to its absolute temperature

P1/T1 = P2/T2

price elasticitythe amount of money expected, required, or given in payment for something

prime factorizationthe ratio of the percentage change in quantity demanded of a product to the percentage change in price.

prime numberthe prime numbers that divide that integer exactly

prime numbersa natural number greater than 1 that is not a product of two smaller natural numbers.

prime power decompositionPositive numbers with no other factors but 1 and the number itself

primitive rootFactoring a number down to a product of primes

principalif every number a coprime to n is congruent to a power of g modulo n

probabilityThe amount borrowed on a loan, before interest is charged

probability density functionthe likelihood of an event happening. This value is always between 0 and 1.

P(Event Happening) = Number of Ways the Even Can Happen / Total Number of Outcomes

productA representation of a continuous probability distribution

profitThe answer when two or more values are multiplied together

profit marginThe amount of money left over after paying costs/expenses

Profit = Revenue - Cost

profitability indexa measure of profitability using profit as a percentage of revenue

(R - C)/R

projectile motionthe ratio of payoff to investment of a proposed project. It is a useful tool for ranking projects.

projectiona form of motion experienced by an object or particle that is projected in a gravitational field

pronumeralthe transformation of points and lines in one plane onto another plane by connecting corresponding points on the two planes with parallel lines.

proofAlso known as a variable.

proper fractionan inferential argument for a mathematical statement, showing that the stated assumptions logically guarantee the conclusion

proper nouna fraction which has its numerator value less than the denominator. The value is less than 1

propertya name used for an individual person, place, or organization, spelled with initial capital letters

Don, Brazil, Orlando Magic

proportionan attribute, quality, or characteristic of something

propositionn equation in which two ratios are set equal to each other

a/b = c/d

psia declarative sentence that is either true or false (but not both)

punnett squareA letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.

Ψ ψ

put call paritya square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment.

put optiondefines the relationship between calls, puts and the underlying futures contrac

C + PV(x) = P + S

put pricean option to sell assets at an agreed price on or before a particular date

puzzlehe price at which an asset will be sold if a put option is exercised

pyramida game, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity or knowledge

pythagorean theorempolyhedron formed by connecting a polygonal base and a point, called the apex.

a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides

a^{2}+ b^{2}= c^{2}