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Math Glossary Letter A
abscissa
noun
The x-coordinate in any point on the Cartesian graph

(x, y)
absolute difference
noun
The distance on a number line between 2 values.

|x - y|
absolute error
noun
The difference between the experimental (Actual) value and expected or theoretical value
absolute value
noun
A positive number representing the distance from 0 on a number line
abundant numbers
noun
A number with a sum of proper divisors greater than the number itself
acceleration
noun
Rate of change of the velocity with respect to time. Denoted as A(t).
accounting
verb
measurement and communication of financial information
accounting rate of return
noun
financial ratio used in capital budgeting

Average Return / Average Investment
accrued coupon
noun
accrued interest is the interest on a bond or loan. The accumulation continued since the principal investment
accumulated value
noun
The total value of an investment, including principal and interest accrued
accuracy
noun
How close a measurement is to the true value
actual
noun
results or observations that happen in real life
actuary
noun
person who deals with the management of risk and uncertainty
acute angle
noun
angle measuring less than 90 degrees
acute triangle
noun
A triangle for which all interior angles are acute.
verb
To bring two or more numbers (or things) together to make a new total

+
verb
The sum of elements
noun
Adding two polynomials and grouping like terms
noun
math operation involving the sum of elements
noun
Adding the same value to both sides of an equation does not change the equality of both sides
noun
The combinations of all sums of two 1-digit numbers
noun
Adding the same value to both sides of an inequality does not change the equality of both sides
noun
A table showing the values of two numbers added together
noun
having the property that the sum of two quantities is equal to the sum of the values of each quantity
noun
when you add any number to zero, the result is the original number
noun
the number you add to (n) to get a result of zero
noun
Two angles which have a common side and common vertex and do not overlap
noun
the transpose of a cofactor matrix
aerobic
noun
exertion or organism requiring oxygen
affine cipher
noun
substitution cipher, wherein each letter in an alphabet is mapped to its numeric equivalent, encrypted using a simple mathematical function, and converted back to a letter
affix
noun
an additional element placed at the beginning or end of a root, stem, or word, or in the body of a word, to modify its meaning.
age
noun
the length of time that a person has lived or a thing has existed
age difference
noun
The amount of change between the ages of 2 people
algebra
noun
Study of symbols and rules in math
algebraic expression
noun
A way to write a mathematical expression from a phrase
algebraic substitution
noun
An algebraic expression with substitution rules for each unknown variable
algebraic substitutions
noun
Putting numbers where the letters are in algebraic equations
algorithm
noun
A process to solve a problem in a set amount of time
aliquot sum
noun
aliquot sum is the sum of all the factors of a number except the number itself
alpha
noun
A letter of the greek alphabet used for math notation.

Α  α
alternative hypothesis
noun
opposite of null hypothesis. One of the proposed proposition in the hypothesis test.

H1
altitude
noun
segment from the vertex of a triangle ot the other side of the triangle
amortization
noun
Repayment schedule of a loan principal over time
anaerobic
noun
exertion or organism not requiring oxygen
anagram
noun
Word or phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a different word or phrase
analysis
noun
detailed examination of the elements or structure of something
angle
noun
the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.
angle of elevation
noun
an angle that is formed between the horizontal line and the line of sight.
angle ratio for a triangle
noun
An amount to express the size of each angle in relation to all three angles of a triangle
Angle Side Angle
noun
postulate states that if two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to two angles and the included side of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent
angular momentum
noun
rotational force
annual percentage rate
noun
the yearly interest generated by a sum that is charged to borrowers or paid to investors.
annuity
noun
A stream of payments
annuity table
noun
A table if interest rates and factors for annuities
annulus
noun
A ring shaped object, bounded by two concentric circles
anova
noun
Analysis of variance - statistical models used to analyze the differences among group means
antilog
noun
inverse log calculation

y = antilog x --> 10x
apocalyptic power
noun
A number of the form 2n that contains the digits 666
apothem
noun
a line segment from the center to the midpoint of one of its sides
apothem of a pentagon
noun
line segment from the center of the pentagon to the midpoint of one of its sides
apothem of a polygon
noun
line segment from the center of the polygon to the midpoint of one of its sides
appreciation
noun
the rise in the value of an asset
approximation
noun
anything that is intentionally similar but not exactly equal to something else.
arbitrary
noun
A number which could be any number it is defined to be but for which no specific value is chosen.
arc
noun
a portion of the boundary of a circle or a curve
arc length of a circle
noun
Distance formed from the central angle

2πrC/360
arccosine
noun
inverse cosine function of x when -1?x?1
arcsine
noun
inverse sine function
arctangent
noun
inverse tangent function
area
noun
Number of square units covering the shape
area code
noun
numbering plan to classify each region in a calling area
area of a circle
noun
Number of square units covering a circle

πr2
area of a hexagon
noun
Number of square units covering a hexagon
area of a kite
noun
Number of square units covering a kite
area of a pentagon
noun
Number of square units covering a pentagon
area of a polygon
noun
Number of square units covering a polygon
area of a rectangle
noun
Number of square units covering a rectangle
area of a rhombus
noun
Number of square units covering a rhombus
area of a square
noun
Number of square units covering a square
area of a trapezoid
noun
Number of square units covering a trapezoid
area of equilateral triangle
noun
sqrt(3)s2/4
area of the sector of a circle
noun
Number of square units covering a circle sector
arithmetic annuity
noun
A finite stream of payments with a first payment P, and each successive payment increasing by r
arithmetic perpetuity
noun
A infinite stream of payments with a first payment P, and each successive payment increasing by r
arithmetic sequence
noun
A set of numbers starting with a number n, and each successive number adds an amount (r)
array
noun
Items (such as objects, numbers, etc.) arranged in rows andor columns.
ASA
noun
Angle Side Angle. Another trigonometry postulate. If the corresponding two angles and included side are equal on 2 triangles, then both triangles are congruent.
ascending
verb
to arrange numbers in increasing order, that is, from smallest to largest.
ascii
noun
American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication
asset
noun
Resources of value in accounting. Land, Equipment, Cash are examples
noun
A property stating the addition of numbers is the same regardless of grouping
Associative Property of Multiplication
noun
A property stating the multiplication of numbers is the same regardless of grouping
ASVAB
noun
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery - Aptitude test for the military
asymptote
noun
a line that continually approaches a given curve but does not meet it at any finite distance
atmosphere
noun
the force exerted on a surface by the air above it as gravity pulls it to Earth
atomic weight
noun
mass of an atom
automorphic numbers
noun
A number with a square ending in the same digit as the original number

Example: 52 = 25
average
noun
A number expressing the central value of a set

Sum of Values/n
Average Accounts Receivable
noun
Expected number of accounts receivable for a period
Average Collection Period
noun
Number of days between a sale credit and collection from the customer
average deviation
noun
Mean of the absolute values of the distance from the mean for each number in a number set
average inventory
noun
expected inventory balance in a period

0.5(Beginning Inventory + Ending Inventory)
axiom
noun
A statement accepted as true without proof. an unprovable rule or first principle accepted as true because it is self-evident or particularly usefu
axis of symmetry
noun
A line dividing a parabola into two equal halves. Both halves represent reflections of each other